Gary Cherr, Ph.D.

Gary Cherr

Position Title
Professor Emeritus

  • Bodega Marine Laboratory
  • College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
  • Department of Environmental Toxicology
Bodega Marine Laboratory
University of California Davis, Bodega Marine Laboratory, PO Box 247, 2099 Westshore Rd, Bodega Bay CA 94923


  • B.A. Biology, Sonoma State University, 1979

  • Ph.D. Zoology, University of California, Davis 1984

  • National Institutes of Health Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, 1984-1986.


I offer a 10 unit undergraduate research course entitled "Environmental Stress and Development in Marine Organisms" (ETX/NUT 127), with a focus on pollutants in the marine environment.  This ecotoxicology course is taught in Summer Session I. This is a lecture/laboratory (first 2 weeks of course) course that includes independent student research projects (4 weeks) as a major component.  Students experience the scanning laser confocal microscope and other imaging systems, as well as a number of physiological and biochemical approaches to assessing effects of contaminants on developing organisms.

Recent Projects:

  1. Effects of oil on Pacific herring embryos in San Francisco Bay
  2. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and emerging contaminants on embryonic axis determination
  3. Multidrug resistance efflux transporters and their functions during development in invertebrates and vertebrates
  4. Effects of nanomaterials on embryo development and cell physiology in marine invertebrates
  5. Captive Breeding and Restoration of the Critically Endangered White Abalone, Haliotis sorenseni

Our laboratory focuses on the effects of natural and human-derived stressors on reproduction and development of marine organisms. We utilize developing systems as sensitive yet simple models for understanding mechanisms of toxicity and environmental stress. In addition, we investigate the physiological mechanisms by which these systems tolerate environmental stress.

The laboratory essentially has two main foci:

The first is more basic in nature and deals with molecules and physiological mechanisms involved in fertilization and early development.

The second is focused on the impacts of pollutants and altered habitats on early life stages that may ultimately lead to changes in populations.


The first focus of our laboratory addresses molecules and physiological mechanisms involved in fertilization and early development.

herring spawn
Male herring spawn first depositing large quantities of immotile sperm in the water. This is often called "white water". These sperm can fertilize eggs for at least 24 hrs after release in the water.

An example of this first focus is our study of the mechanisms of sperm motility initiation in Pacific herring from the San Francisco Bay estuary and the egg-derived ligand that signals the intracellular ionic changes and subsequent motility initiation (Drs. Carol Vines, Fred Griffin, and Ed Smith). These sperm have evolved a unique mode of motility initiation in that they surprisingly remain immotile in the environment for hours until they contact an egg, at which time an extracellular glycoprotein stimulates an ionic cascade resulting in flagellar motion. These ionic events are dependent on lowered salinity (in particular Na+) that is typical in the winter months in the estuary.

In collaboration with colleagues in Japan and University of Hawaii we have found that sperm motility initiation, successful fertilization, embryo development, and even larval survival and growth are dependent on the lowered salinities that occur in normal years in the estuary (Griffin et al., 1998; Vines et al., 2002; Cherr et al., 2008). We have collaborated with colleagues in Japan to investigate both the basic ionic signaling events in sperm motility initiation as well as differences in salinity tolerance of herring populations along the Pacific Rim. This research includes comparative studies of fish species as well as insects (Yanagimachi et al., 2013). We have also studied the impacts of suspended SF Bay sediments on development of herring (Griffin et al., 2009, 2012). Even low concentrations of clean sediments can impact normal larvae if eggs are exposed within 2 hrs of spawning; exposure at later time of development does not impact larval morphology.

collaboratorsOur laboratory, collaborating with the NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center, was involved in the assessment of the damage to herring embryos from the 2007 Cosco Busan bunker fuel spill in San Francisco Bay. It was found that the low levels of bunker fuel were extremely lethal to herring embryos deposited in the intertidal region.  At depth where sunlight did not penetrate, typical cardiac abnormalities induced by hydrocarbon exposure were observed. This is the first demonstration in the environment of the phenomenon of phototoxicity, where ultraviolet light from the sun makes chemicals from oil extremely lethal at concentrations that are not lethal in the absent of sunlight. (Incardona et al., 2012a, 2012b).

In addition to research on non-mammalian systems, we have been investigating the role of DEFB126, a beta-defensin that coats the mammalian sperm surface and "cloaks" sperm from being attacked by the female reproductive tract immune system (with Ted Tollner, Asst. Adjunct Professor, School of Medicine, UCD and Chuck Bevins, School of Medicine, UCD). This glycoprotein is part of the innate immune system and is related to immuno-protective peptides used by invertebrates (Tollner et al., 2012). In humans, we have discovered a mutation in the DEFB126 gene that directly relates to infertility in men (~25%) carrying the homozygous mutation (Science Translational Medicine, 2011).

Above, Movie of sperm loaded with the calcium probe Fluo-4 show cytoplasmic fluorescence as they swim. Imaging accomplished with the laboratory's scanning laser confocal microscope. The left side is fluorescence and the right is the overlay of fluorescence over interference contrast.


Above, Movie of Fluo-4 loaded sperm traversing the egg's micropylar canal. Sperm in the canal are brighter indicating an increase in calcium. The bottom is only Fluo-4 fluorescence and the top is the overlay of fluorescence over interference contrast. Sperm that have completed passage through the micropyle appear brighter (more intracellular calcium).

The second focus of our lab deals with both natural and anthropogenic stressors.

herring sperm
Herring sperm undergo an increase in intracellular calcium when they initiate motility upon exposure to the egg-derived molecule, SMIF. Calcium increase is detected here using the calcium probe Fluo-3 and the scanning laser confocal microscope.
Gonads of Longjaw mudsucker
Gonads of Longjaw mudsucker collected from SF Bay salt marsh. This fish shows evidence of endocrine disruption with the condition known as "ovotestes". The upper gonad is an enlarged testes with sperm, while the smaller lower gonad consists of some testicular tissue and ovary, orange color. Research on Menidia in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta is taking similar approaches (Carol Vines, Susanne Brander, Bryan Cole)

We have been investigating the mechanisms by which phylogenetic differences in contaminant tolerance occur in embryos exposed to hydrophobic chemicals; these include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. This research includes the study of the multi-drug resistance transporter family (ABC transporters) of proteins and their expression in embryos/larvae as well as adult tissues.






Zebrafish embryos exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Zebrafish embryos exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show Beta-catenin (green) accumulating in nuclei. Blue labeling on right shows nuclei locations of same embryo.
Zebrafish embryos
Control zebrafish embryos labeled with antibody to Beta-catenin (green). The cell membrane boundaries are visible with some cytoplasmic labeling. Few nuclei label. Blue labeling on right are labeled with a nuclear stain.







Selected Publications

Connon, R.E., S. Hasenbein, S.M. Brander,  H.C. Poynton, E. B. Holland, D. Schlenk, James L. Orlando, M.L. Hladik, T,K. Collier, N.L. Scholz, J.P. Incardona, N.D. Denslow, A.M. Hamdoun, S.Nicklisch, N. Garcia-Reyero, E.J. Perkins, E.P. Gallagher, X. Deng, D. Wang, S.Fong, R.S. Breuer, M.Hajibabei, J.B. Brown, J.K. Colbourne, T.M. Young, G. Cherr, A.Whitehead, A. Todgham. 2019.  Review and Recommendations for Monitoring Contaminants and Their Effects in the San Francisco Bay-Delta. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, in press.

Cunningham, B., C. Torres-Duarte, G.N. Cherr, and N. Adams. 2019. Effects of three zinc-containing sunscreens on development of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos. Aquatic Toxicology, in press.

Torres-Duarte, C., Vines, C.A., Fairbairn, E., and G.N. Cherr. 2019. Methods for toxicology studies in echinoderm embryos and larvae. Methods in Cell Biology: Echinoderms Part A, 150A: 411-426. In: Kathy R. Foltz, Amro Hamdoun, editors: Echinoderms, Vol 150, MCB, UK: Academic Press, pp. 411-426.

Torres-Duarte, C., S. Hutton, C.A. Vines, J. Moore, and G.N. Cherr. 2018. Effects of soluble copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure on the immune system of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialisEnvironmental Toxicology, 19.

Torres-Duarte, C., K.M. Ramos-Torres, R. Rahimoff, and G.N. Cherr. 2017. Stage specific effects of soluble copper and copper oxide nanoparticles during sea urchin embryo development and their relation to intracellular copper uptake. Aquatic Toxicology, 189:134-141.

Santillán-Urquiza, E., F. Arteaga-Cardona, C. Torres-Duarte, B. Cole, B. Wu, M.A. Méndez-Rojas, G.N. Cherr. 2017. Facilitation of trace metal uptake in cells by inulin coating of metallic nanoparticles. Royal Society of Open Science, 4: 170480.

Yanagimachi, R., T. Harumi, H. Matsubara, W. Yan, S. Yuan, E. Yamaha, K. Arai, N. Hirohashi, I. Tomoriha, T. Matsubara, T. Andoh, C. Vines, and G. Cherr. 2017. Chemical and physical guidance of fish spermatozoa into the egg through the micropyle. Biology of Reproduction, 96(4):780-799.

Arteaga-Cardona, F., E. Santillán-Urquiza, M.E. Méndoza-Álvarez, C. Torres-Duarte, G.N. Cherr, P. de la Presa Muñóz, and M.A. Méndez-Rojas. 2017.  Unusual variation of blocking temperature in bi-magnetic nanoparticles. Journal of Magnetism and Magentic Materials, 441:417-423.

Keller, A.A., A.S. Adeleye, J.R. Conway, K.L. Garner, L. Zhao, G.N. Cherr, J. Hong, J.L. Gardea-Torresdey, H.A. Godwin, S. Hanna, Z. Ji, C. Kaweeteerawat, S. Lin, H. Lenihan, R. Miller, A.E. Nel, S.L. Walker, A.A. Taylor, C. Torres-Duarte, J. Zink, and N. Zuverza-Mena. 2017. Comparative environmental fate and toxicity of copper nanomaterials. NanoImpact, 7:28-40.

Torres-Duarte, C., K.M. Ramos-Torres, R. Rahimoff, and G.N. Cherr. 2017. Stage specific effects of soluble copper and copper oxide nanoparticles during sea urchin embryo development and their relation to intracellular copper uptake. Aquatic Toxicology, 189:134-141.

Santillán-Urquiza, E., F. Arteaga-Cardona, C. Torres-Duarte, B. Cole, B. Wu, M.A. Méndez-Rojas, G.N. Cherr. 2017. Facilitation of trace metal uptake in cells by inulin coating of metallic nanoparticles. Royal Society of Open Science, 4: 170480.

White, J. W., B. Cole, G. N. Cherr, R. Connon, and S. Brander. 2017. Scaling up the individual-level effects of endocrine disruptors: How many males does a population need? Environmental Science & Technology,  51:1802-1810.

Miller, R., E. Muller, B. Cole, T. Martin, R. Nisbet, G. Bielmyer-Fraser, T. Jarvis, A. Keller, G. Cherr, H. Lenihan. 2017. Photosynthetic efficiency predicts toxic effects of metal nanomaterials in phytoplankton. Aquatic Toxicology, 183:85-93.

Cherr, G.N., E. Fairbairn, and A. Whitehead. 2017. Impacts of Petroleum-Derived Pollutants on Fish Development. Annual Reviews of Animal Bioscience, 5:185-203.

Rogers-Bennett, L., K.M. Aquilino, C.A. Catton, S.K. Kawana, B.J. Walker, L.W. Ashlock, B.C. Marshman, J.D. Moore, I.K. Taniguchi, K.V. Gilardi and G.N. Cherr. 2016. Implementing a restoration program for the endangered white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni) in California. Journal of Shellfish Research, 35(3):611-618.

Yu, J., S. Liu, B. Wu, Z. Shen, G.N. Cherr, X-X. Zhang, and M. Li. 2016. Comparison of cytotoxicity and inhibition of membrane ABC transporters induced by MWCNTs with different length and functional groups. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(7):3985-3994

Liu, Su, W. Jiang, B. Wu, J. Yu, H. Yu, X. Zhang, C. Torres-Duarte, G.N. Cherr. 2016. Low-levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. Nanotoxicology. 10(5):597-606.

Torres-Duarte, C., S.A. Adeyemi, S. Pokhrel, L. Mädler, A.A. Keller, and G.N. Cherr. 2015. Developmental effects of two different copper oxide nanomaterials in sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus) embryos. Nanotoxicology, 10(6):671-679.

Sumigama, S., S. Mansell, M. Miller, P. Lishko, G.N. Cherr, S. Meyers and T.L. Tollner. 2015. Progesterone accelerates the completion of sperm capacitation and activates CatSper channel in spermatozoa from the rhesus macaque. Biology of Reproduction, 93(6):130, 1-11.

Liu, Su, W. Jiang, B. Wu, J. Yu, H. Yu, X. Zhang, C. Torres-Duarte, G.N. Cherr. 2015. Low-levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. Nanotoxicology, DOI:10.3109/17435390.2015.1104739.

Cherr, G.N., C.A. Vines, E.H. Smith, M. Pillai, F.J. Griffin, R. Yanagimachi. 2015. Sperm Motility Initiation in Pacific Herring. In The Flagellar Mechanics of Spermatozoa: Its Implication in Sperm Guidance. Bentham Publishing, United Arab Emirates. J. Cosson, ed. pp. 189-204.

Wu, B., C. Torres-Duarte, B.J. Cole, and G.N. Cherr. 2015. Copper Oxide and Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials Act as Inhibitors of Multidrug Resistance Transport in Sea Urchin Embryos: Their Role as Chemosensitizers. Environmental Science and Technology, 49:5760-5770.

Renick, V.C., T.W. Anderson, S.G. Morgan, and G.N. Cherr. 2014. Interactive effects of pesticide exposure and habitat structure on behavior and predation of a marine larval fish. 2014. Ecotoxicology, 24(2):391-400.

Corsi, I., G.N. Cherr, H.S. Lenihan, J. Labille, M. Hasselov, L. Canesi, F. Dondero, G. Frenzilli, D. Hristozov, V. Puntes, G. Libralato, A. Marcomini, E. Sabbioni, and V. Matranga. 2014. Common strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of nanomaterials entering the marine environment. ACS Nano, 8(10):9694-9709.

Murata, K., F.S. Conte, E. McInnis, T.H. Fong, and G.N. Cherr. 2014. Identification of the origin and localization of chorion (egg envelope) proteins in an ancient fish, the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.  Biol. Reprod., 90(6): 132,1-12.

Cherr, G.N. 2013. Survival of drowning sperm: Do spermatozoa from external fertilizers adapt to differing osmotic environments through the use of aquaporins?  Biol. Reprod., 89(2):36, 1-2

Brander , S.M., R.E. Connon, G. He, J.A. Hobbs, K.L. Smalling, S.J. The, J. W. White, I. Werner, M.S. Denison, and G.N. Cherr.  2013. From ‘omics to otoliths: Responses of an estuarine fish to endocrine disrupting compounds across biological scales.  PLoS ONE, 8(9). doi:10.3771/journal.pone.0074251

Hwang, H.-M., R.S. Carr, G.N. Cherr, P.G. Green, E.D. Grosholz, L. Judah, S.G. Morgan, S. Ogle, V.K. Rashbrook, W.L. Rose, S.J. Teh, C.A. Vines, and S.L. Anderson.  2013. Sediment quality assessment in tidal salt marshes in northern California, USA: An evaluation of multiple lines of evidence approach.  Science of the Total Environment, 454-455:189-198.

Yanagimachi, R., G.N. Cherr, T. Andoh, T. Harumi, C.A. Vines, M.C. Pillai, F.J. Griffin, H. Matsubara, T. Weathersby, and K. Kaneshiro. 2013.  Sperm attractant in the micropyle region of fish and insect eggs. Biology of Reproduction, 88(2):47, 1-11.

Brander, S.M., G. He, K.L. Smalling, M.S. Denison, and G.N. Cherr.  2012.  The in vivo estrogenic and in vitro anti-estrogenic activity of permethrin and bifenthrin.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31(12):2848-2855.

Fairbairn, E.A., J. Bonthius, and G.N. Cherr.  2012.  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibutyl phthalate disrupt dorsal-ventral axis determination via the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in zebrafish embryos.  Aquatic Toxicology, 124-125:188-196.

Vines, C.A. and G.N. Cherr. 2012. Pollution: Emerging Contaminants. In: Ecology, Conservation and Restoration of Tidal Marshes: The San Francisco Estuary. A. Palaima, ed. University of California Press. pp.67-86.

Holden, P.A., R.M. Nisbet, H.S. Lenihan, R.J. Miller, G.N. Cherr, J.P. Schimel, and J.L. Gardea-Torresdey.  2012. Ecological nanotoxicology: Nanomaterial hazard considerations at the subcellular, population, community, and ecosystems levels.  Accounts of Chemical Research, DOI:10.1021/ar300069t.

Tollner, T.L., A.I. Yudin, J.W. Overstreet, C.L. Bevins, and G.N. Cherr. 2012. Beta Defensin 126, a Multifunctional Sperm Transport Protein. In: Sperm Cell Research in the 21st Century: Historical Discoveries to New Horizons. M. Morisawa, ed., Adthree Publishing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, pp. 124-129.

Tollner, T.L., C.L. Bevins, and G.N. Cherr.  2012.  Multifunctional glycoprotein DEFB126—a curious story of defensin-clad spermatozoa.  Nature Reviews Urology, 9:365-375.

Griffin, F.J., T. DiMarco, K.L. Menard, J.A. Newman, E.H. Smith, C.A. Vines, and G.N. Cherr.  2012.  Impacts of suspended sediments on Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) larval survival and condition.  Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.1007/s12237-012-9518-7.

Peterson, C.H., S.S. Anderson, G.N. Cherr, R.F. Ambrose, S. Anghera, S. Bay, M. Blum, R. Condon, T.A. Dean, M. Graham, M. Guzy, S. Hampton, S. Joye, J. Lambrinos, B. Mate, D. Meffert, S. P. Powers, P. Somasundaran, R.B. Spies, C.M. Taylor, R.Ttjeerdema, and E.E. Adams. 2011. A Tale of Two Spills: Novel Science and Policy Implications of an Emerging New Oil Spill Model. BioScience, 62(5):461-469.

Brander, S.M., B.J. Cole, and G.N. Cherr. 2012.  An approach to detecting estrogenic endocrine disruption via choriogenin expression in an estuarine model fish species.  Ecotoxicology, 21:1272-1280.

Incardona, J.P., C.A. Vines, B.F. Anulacion, D.H. Baldwin, H.L. Day, B.L. French, J.S. Labenia, T.L. Linbo, M.S. Myers, O.P. Olson, C.A. Sloan, S. Sol, F.J. Griffin, K. Menard, S.G. Morgan, J.E. West, T.K. Collier, G.M. Ylitalo, G.N. Cherr, and N.L. Scholz.  2012. Unexpectedly high mortality in Pacific herring embryos exposed to the 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill in San Francisco Bay.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 109(2):E51-58.

Incardona, J.P., C.A. Vines, T.L. Linbo, M.S. Myers, C.A. Sloan, B.F. Anulacion, D. Boyd, T.K. Collier, S.G. Morgan, G.N. Cherr and N.L. Scholz.  2012. Potent phototoxicity of marine bunker oil to translucent herring embryos after prolonged weathering.  PLoS ONE, 7(2): e30116

Tollner, T.L., Venners, S.A., Hollox, E.J., Yudin, A.I., Liu. X., Tang, G., Houxun, X., Kays, R.J., Lau, T., Overstreet, J.W., Xu, X., Bevins, C.L., and G.N. Cherr. 2011. A Common Beta-Defensin 126 Gene Variant Underlies Impaired Sperm Function and Subfertility. Science Translational Medicine, 3, 92ra65.

Ford, T.E., A.L.Bass, S.Cheng,  G.N.Cherr, B. Cole,  E. Fairbairn,  J.-D. Gu,  R. S. Halbrook,  F. E. Loffler, E. L. Madsen, and N.A. McGinn. 2011. EHPC 2010: sharing knowledge on environmental health for risk mitigation. Ecotoxicology, 20:937-939.

Fairbairn, E.A., Keller, A.A., Mädler, L., Zhou, D., Pokhrel, S., and G.N. Cherr. 2011. Metal Oxide Nanomaterials in Seawater: Linking Physical Characteristics with Biological Response in Sea Urchin Development. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 192:1565-1571.

Watanabe, A., Takayama-Watanabe, E., Vines, C.A., and G.N. Cherr. 2011. Sperm motility-initiating substance in newt egg-jelly induces differential sperm motility initiation based on sperm intracellular calcium levels. Development, Growth, and Differentiation. 53:9-17.

Werlin, R., J. H. Priester, Mielke, R. E., Kraemer, S. Jackson, S., P. K. Stoimenov, G.D Stucky. G.N. Cherr, E. Orias, and P. A. Holden. 2011. Biomagnification of cadmium selenide quantum dots in a simple experimental microbial food chain. Nature Nanotechnology, 6:65-71.

Keller, A.A., H. Wang, D. Zhou, H. Lenihan, G.N. Cherr, B. Cardinale and R. Miller. 2010. Behavior of metal oxide nanoparticles in natural aqueous matrices. Environmental Science & Technology, 44:1962-1967.

Aimo, L., G.N. Cherr, and P.I. Oteiza. 2010. Low extracellular zinc increases neuronal oxidant production initially through NADPH oxidase activation. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 48(12):1577-1587.

Murata, K., W. Nunomura, Y. Takakuwa, and G.N. Cherr. 2010. Two different unique cardiac isoforms of protein 4.1R in zebrafish, Danio rerio, and insights into their cardiac functions as related to their unique structures. Development, Growth, and Differentiation. 52:591-602.

Ellis-Hutchings, R.G., G.N. Cherr, L.A. Hanna, and C.L. Keen. 2009. The effects of marginal maternal vitamin A status on penta-brominated diphenyl ether mixture-induced alterations in maternal and conceptal vitamin A and fetal development in the Sprague Dawley rat Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology. 86:48-57.

Griffin, F.J., E.H. Smith, C.A. Vines, and G.N. Cherr. 2009. Impacts of suspended sediments on fertilization, embryonic development, and early larval life stages of the Pacific Herring, Clupea pallasi. Biological Bulletin, 216:175-187.

Tollner, T.L., A.I. Yudin, C.A. Treece, J.W. Overstreet, and G.N. Cherr. 2008. Macaque sperm coating protein Beta-Defensin 126 (DEFB126) facilitates sperm penetration of cervical mucus. Human Reproduction, 23:2523-2534.

Yudin, A.I., T.L. Tollner, C.A. Treece, R. Kays, G.N. Cherr, J.W. Overstreet, and C.L. Bevins. 2008. ß-defensin 22 is a major component of the mouse sperm surface glycocalyx. Reproduction, 136:753-765.Tollner,

Tollner, T.L., C.A. Vandevoort, A.I. Yudin, J.W. Overstreet, and G.N. Cherr. 2008. Release of DEFB126 from macaque sperm and completion of capacitation are triggered by conditions that simulate peri-ovulatory oviductal fluid. Molecular Reproduction and Development, 76(5):431-443.

Tollner, T.L., A.I. Yudin, A.F. Tarantal, C.A. Treece, J.W. Overstreet, and G.N. Cherr. 2008. Beta-Defensin 126 on the surface of macaque sperm mediates attachment of sperm to oviductal epithelia. Biology of Reproduction, 78:400-412.

Arkush, K.D., G.N. Cherr, and J.S. Clegg. 2008. Induced thermotolerance and tissue Hsc70 in juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynhus kisutch. Acta Zoologica, 89:331-338.

Cherr, G.N., M. Morisawa, C.A. Vines, K. Yoshida, E.H. Smith, T. Matsubara, M.C. Pillai, F.J. Griffin, and R. Yanagimachi. 2008. Role of two egg-derived molecules in sperm motility initiation and fertilization in the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi). International Journal of Developmental Biology, 52:743-752.

Nunomura, W., Y. Takakuwa, G.N. Cherr and K. Murata. 2007. Characterization of Protein 4.1R in erythrocytes of zebrafish (Danio rerio): Unique binding properties with transmembrane proteins and calmodulin. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 148(2):124-138.

Rose, W.L., R.M. Nisbet, P.G. Gree, S. Norris, T. Fan, E.H. Smith, G.N. Cherr, and S.L. Anderson. 2006. Using an integrated approach to link biomarker responses and physiological stress to growth impairment of cadmium-exposed larval topsmelt. Aquatic Toxicology, 80:298-308.

Rajagopal, M., T.L. Tollner, W. Finkbeiner, G.N. Cherr, and J. Widdicombe. 2006. Differentiated structure and function of primary cultures of monkey oviductal epithelium. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Animal, 42:248-254.

Roepke, T.A., A.M. Hamdoun, and G.N. Cherr. 2006. An increase in multidrug transport activity is associated with oocyte maturation in sea stars. Development, Growth, Differentiation, 48(9):559-574.

Cao, Y., G.N. Cherr, A. L. Córdova, T.W.-M. Fan, R.M. Higashi, M. G. LaMontagne, K.M. Scow, J. Yuan, and P. A. Holden. 2006. Relationships between Sediment Microbial Communities and Pollutants in Two California Salt Marshes. Microbial Ecology, 52:619-633.

Roepke, T.A., E.S. Chang, and G.N. Cherr. Maternal exposure to estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds alters the sensitivity of sea urchin embryos and the expression of an orphan steroid receptor, Journal of Experimental Zoology, 305A:831-840. 2006

Anderson, S.L., G.N. Cherr, S.G. Morgan, C.A. Vines, R.M. Higashi, W.A. Bennett, W.L. Rose, A. Brooks, R.M. Nisbet. Integrating contaminant responses in indicator saltmarsh species, Marine Environmental Research, 62:S317-S321. 2006

Ellis-Hutchings, R.G., G.N. Cherr, L.A. Hanna, and C.L. Keen. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 215:135-145. 2006

Roepke, T.A., M.J. Snyder, and G.N. Cherr. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations, Aquatic Toxicology, 71:155-173. 2005

Friedman, C.S., H.M. Brown, T.W. Ewing, F.J. Griffin, and G.N. Cherr. Pilot study of the Olympia oyster Ostrea conchaphila in the San Francisco Bay estuary: Description and distribution of diseases., Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 65:1-8. 2005

Yudin, A.I., S.E.Generao, T.L.Tollner, C.A. Treece, J.W. Overstreet, and G.N. Cherr. ESP13.2 on the cell surface protects sperm from immunorecognition and binding of Anti-sperm antibodies., Biology of Reproduction, 73:1243-1252. 2005

Yudin, A.I., C.A. Treece, T.L. Tollner, J.W. Overstreet, G.N. Cherr. The Carbohydrate Structure of DEFB126, the Major Component of the Cynomolgus Macaque Sperm Plasma Membrane Glycocalyx, Journal of Membrane Biology, 207(2):110-129. 2005

Rose, W.L., J. Hobbs, R. Nisbet, P.G. Green, G.N. Cherr, S.A. Anderson. Validation of Otolith Growth Rate Analysis Using Cadmium-Exposed Larval Topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24(10):2612-2620. 2005

Griffin, F.J., M.R, Brenner, H.M. Brown, E.H. Smith, C.A. Vines, and G.N. Cherr. Survival of Pacific herring larvae is a function of external salinity, In: Larval Fish Ecology in the San Francisco Estuary and Watershed, American Fisheries Society Symposium, 39:37-46. 2004

Brown, H.M., A. Briden, T. Stokell, F.J. Griffin, and G.N. Cherr. Thermotolerance and Hsp70 Profiles in Adult and Embryonic California Native Oysters, Ostrea conchaphila (Carpenter, 1857), Journal of Shellfish Research, 23(1):135-141. 2004

Tollner, T.L, A.I. Yudin, C.A. Treece, J.W. Overtsreet, and G.N. Cherr. Macaque sperm release ESP13.2 and PSP94 during capacitation: The absence of ESP13.2 is linked to sperm-zona recognition and binding, Molecular Reproduction and Development, 69:325-337. 2004

Hamdoun, A.M., G.N. Cherr, T.A. Roepke, and D. Epel. Activation of multidrug efflux transporter activity at fertilization in sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), Developmental Biology, 276:452-462. 2004

Watters, D.L., H.M. Brown, F.J. Griffin, E.J. Larson, and G.N. Cherr. Pacific Herring spawning grounds in San Francisco Bay: 1973- 2000, In: Larval Fish Ecology in the San Francisco Estuary and Watershed, American Fisheries Society Symposium, 39:1-9. 2004

Pillai, M.C., C.A. Vines, A.H. Wikramanayake and G.N. Cherr. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons disrupt axial development in sea urchin embryos through a Beta-Catenin dependent pathway, Toxicology, 186:93-108. 2003

Hamdoun, A.M., Cheney, D.P., and G.N. Cherr. Phenotypic plasticity of HSP70 and HSP70 gene expression in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas): Implications for thermal limits and induction of thermal tolerance, Biological Bulletin, 205:160-169. 2003

Yudin, A.I., , T.L. Tollner, M.-W. Li, C.A.Treece, J.W. Overstreet, and G.N. Cherr. ESP13.2, a Member of the Beta Defensin Family, is a Macaque Sperm Surface Coating Protein Involved in the Capacitation Process, Biology of Reproduction, 69:1118-1128. 2003

Vines, C.A., K. Yoshida, F.J. Griffin, M.C. Pillai, M. Morisawa, R. Yanagimachi and G.N. Cherr. Motility Initiation in Herring Sperm is Regulated by Reverse Sodium-Calcium Exchange. Proceedings. National Academy of Sciences, USA, 99:2026-2031. 2002

Cherr, G.N. Can we develop and utilize indicators of ecological integrity to successfully manage ecosystems?, Managing for Ecosystem Health, Third International Congress on Ecosystem Health, Qualset, Rapport, Ralston, Lasley, eds.227-229. 2002

Hamdoun, A.M., F.J. Griffin, and G.N. Cherr. Tolerance to Biodegraded Crude Oil in Marine Invertebrate embryos and larvae is associated with expression of a multixenobiotic resistance transporter., Aquatic Toxicology, 61:127-140. 2002

Morisawa, S. and G.N. Cherr. Acrosome reaction in spermatozoa from hagfish (Agnatha) Eptatretus burgeri and E. stouti: Acrosomal exocytosis and the identification of filamentous actin., Development, Growth and Differentiation, 44:337-344. 2002

Tollner. T.L., J.W. Overstreet, M.W. Li, S.A. Meyers, A.I. Yudin, E.R. Salinas, and G.N. Cherr. Lignosulfonic acid blocks In Vitro fertilization of macaque oocytes when sperm are treated prior to capacitation. Journal of Andrology, 23(6):889-898. 2002

Vines, C.A., M.W. Li, X. Deng, A.I. Yudin, G.N. Cherr, and J.W. Overstreet. Identification of a Hyaluronic Acid (HA) binding domain in the PH-20 protein that may function in cell signaling, Molecular Reproduction and Development, 60:542-552. 2001

Cherr, G.N., A.I. Yudin, and J.W. Overstreet. 2001. The dual functions of GPI-anchored PH-20: Hyaluronidase and intracellular signaling., Matrix Biology, 20:515-525. 2001

Huovinen, P.S., A.O.J. Oikari, M.R. Soimasu, G.N. Cherr, Impact of UV radiation on the early development of the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) gametophytes, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 72:308-313, 2000

Vines, C.A., F.J. Griffin, M.C. Pillai, G.N. Cherr, The effects of soluble creosote-derived compounds on development of Pacific herring embryos, Aquatic Toxicology, 51:225-239, 2000

Cherr, G.N., A.I. Yudin, M.-W. Li, C.A. Vines, J.W. Overstreet, Hyaluronic acid and the cumulus extracellular matrix induce increases in intracellular calcium in macaque sperm via the plasma membrane protein PH-20, Zygote, 7(3):211-222, 1999

Griffin, F.J, Pillai, M.C, Vines, C.A, Kaaria, J, Hibbard-Robbins, T, Yanagimachi, R, Cherr, G.N., Effects of salinity on sperm motility, fertilization, and early development in the Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, Biological Bulletin, 19:425-35, 1998

Middaugh, D.P, Shelton, C.L, McKenney, J.R, Cherr, G.N., Chapman, P.J, Courtney, L.A., Preliminary observations on responses of embryonic and larval Pacific herring to neutral fraction biodegradation products of weathered Alaska North Slope oil, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 34:188-196, 1998

Clegg, J.S, Uhlinger, K.R, Jackson, G.N. Cherr, S.A, Rifkin, E, Friedman, C.S., Induced thermotolerance and the heat shock protein-70 family in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 71(1):21-30, 1998

Yudin, A.I, Cherr, G.N., VandeVoort, C.A, Overstreet, J.A., Rearrangement of the PH-20 protein on the surface of macaque spermatozoa following exposure to anti-PH-20 antibodies or binding to the zona pellucida, Molecular Reproduction and Development, 50:207-220, 1998

Cherr, G.N., Griffin, F.J, Pillai, M.C, Vines, C.A, Morisawa, M, R. Yanagimachi., The role of the chorion in initiation of sperm motility in the Pacific herring, Zygote, 6(SUPPL.1):S16-S17, 1998

Pillai, M.C, Blethrow, H, Higashi, R.M, Vines, C.A, Cherr, G.N., Inhibition of the sea urchin sperm acrosome reaction by a lignin-derived macromolecule, Aquatic Toxicology, 37:139-156, 1997

Garman, G.D, Anderson, S.L, Cherr, G.N., Developmental abnormalities and DNA-protein crosslinks in sea urchin embryos exposed to three metals, Aquatic Toxicology, 39:247-265, 1997

Cherr G.N., Meyers S A, Yudin A I, VandeVoort C A, Myles D G, Primakoff P, Overstreet J W, The PH-20 protein in cynomolgus macaque spermatozoa: identification of two different forms exhibiting hyaluronidase activity., Developmental Biology, 175(1):142-53, 10 Apr 1996

Griffin, F.J, Vines, C.A, Pillai, M.C, Yanagimachi, R, Cherr, G.N., Sperm motility initiation factor (SMIF) is a minor component of the Pacific herring egg chorion, Development Growth and Differentiation, 38:193-202, 1996

Spangenberg, J.V, Cherr, G.N., Developmental effects of barium in a marine bivalve (Mytilus californianus)., Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15(10):1769-1774, 1996

Garman, G.D, Pillai, M.C, Goff, L.J, Cherr, G.N., Nuclear events during early development in Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes and the temporal effects of a marine contaminant, Marine Biology, 121:355-362, 1995

Pillai, M.C, Shields, T.C, Yanagimachi, R, Cherr, G.N., Isolation and partial characterization of the sperm motility initiation factor from eggs of the Pacific herring, Clupea pallasi, Journal of Experimental Zoology, 265:336-342, 1993

Cherr, G.N., Fan, T. W-M, Pillai, M.C, Shields, T, Higashi, R.M., Electrophoretic separation, characterization, and quantification of biologically active lignin-derived macromolecules, Analytical Biochemistry, 214:521-527, 1993

Cherr G.N., Summers R G, Baldwin J D, Morrill J B, Preservation and visualization of the sea urchin embryo blastocoelic extracellular matrix., Microscopy Research and Technique, 22(1):11-22, 1992

Baldwin, J.D, Pillai, M.C, Cherr, G.N., The Response of Sea Urchin embryos to aqueous petroleum wates includes the expression of a high molecular weight glycoprotein, Marine Biology, 114:21-30, 1992

Pillai, M.C, Baldwin, J.D, Cherr, G.N., Early development in an algal gametophyte: Role of the cytoskeleton in germination and nulear translocation, Protoplasma, 170:34-45, 1992

Yanagimachi, R, Cherr, G.N., Pillai, M.C, Baldwin, J.D., Factors controlling sperm entry into the micropyles of salmonid and herring eggs, Development Growth and Differentiation, 34:447-461, 1992

Cherr, G.N., A.I. Yudin, D.F. Katz, Organization of the hamster cumulus extracellular matrix: A hyaluronate-glycoprotein gel which modulates sperm access to the oocyte, Development Growth and Differentiation, 32(4):353-365, 1990

Cherr, G.N., S. Suarez, Structure and physiology of mature sperm and egg (E. Meisami and P.S. Timiras, eds.), Handbook of Human Growth and Developmental Biology, 2:159-168, 1989

Cherr, G.N., E.Z. Drobnis, D.F. Katz, Localization of cortical granule constituents before and after exocytosis in the hamster egg, Journal of Experimental Zoology, 246(1):81-93, 1988

Cherr, G.N., H. Lambert, S. Meizel, D.F. Katz., In vitro studies of the golden hamster sperm acrosome reaction: Completion on the zona pellucida and induction by homologous soluble zonae pellucidae, Developmental Biology, 114:119-131, 1986

Cherr, G.N., W.H. Clark, Jr., An egg envelope component induces the acrosome reaction in sturgeon sperm, Journal of Experimental Zoology, 234:75-85, 1985

Cherr, G.N., W.H. Clark, Jr., Gamete interaction in the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus: A morphological and physiological review, Environmental Biology of Fishes, 14(1):11-22, 1985

Cherr, G.N., W.H. Clark, Jr., An acrosome reaction in sperm from the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, Journal of Experimental Zoology, 232(1):129-139, 1984